Informes de la Construcción, Vol 70, No 549 (2018)

Diseño de oficinas en el Mediterráneo. La importancia del bienestar, la salud y el rendimiento de los usuarios


https://doi.org/10.3989/id.55050

C. Mateo-Cecilia
IVE Instituto Valenciano de la Edificación. Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, España
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2395-2392

M. Navarro-Escudero
IVE Instituto Valenciano de la Edificación. Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, España
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8642-6528

T. Escrig-Meliá
IVE Instituto Valenciano de la Edificación. Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, España
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7503-2344

Y. Estreder
UV Universitat de València, España
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4480-4724

Resumen


Estudios previos han investigado la influencia de la calidad del ambiente interior (CAI) de las oficinas en el bienestar, salud y rendimiento de los empleados. Sin embargo, no parecen haberse explorado explícitamente cuáles son las condiciones ambientales apropiadas para los diferentes patrones de trabajo que conviven en estos espacios. Este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio empírico, basado en mediciones sincronizadas de diferentes parámetros CAI (i.e., ruido, iluminación y temperatura), y el bienestar, la salud y el rendimiento de 71 empleados ubicados en doce espacios de oficinas de la Comunidad Valenciana durante tres periodos, considerando invierno y verano. Estos resultados referentes al primer invierno monitorizado, sugieren la existencia de diferentes parámetros óptimos asociados a diferentes niveles de complejidad de la tarea para el clima mediterráneo; y abren nuevas vías de investigación para establecer un modelo de Oficinas Inteligentes y Sostenibles (SSO) y desarrollar herramientas de apoyo al diseño y la gestión de las mismas.

Palabras clave


oficinas sostenibles; bienestar de los empleados; calidad ambiental CAI; patrones de trabajo; complejidad de la tarea; rendimiento de los empleados; salud; clima mediterráneo

Texto completo:


HTML PDF XML

Referencias


(1) Tham, K.W.; Wargocki, P.; Tan, Y. F. (2015). Indoor environmental quality, occupant perception, prevalence of sick building syndrome symptoms, and sick leave in a Green Mark Platinum-rated versus a non-Green Mark-rated building: A case study. Science and Technology for the Built Environment, 21(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/10789669.2014.967164

(2) Danielsson, C. B.; Chungkham, H. S.; Wulff, C.; Westerlund, H. (2014). Office design's impact on sick leave rates. Ergonomics, 57(2). https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2013.871064

(3) Roelofsen, P. (2002). The impact of office environments on employee performance: The design of the workplace as a strategy for productivity enhancement. Journal of Facilities Management, 1(3): 247-264. https://doi.org/10.1108/14725960310807944

(4) Sundstrom, E.; Town, J. P.; Rice, R. W.; Osborn D. P.; Brill, M. (2016) Office Noise, Satisfaction, and Performance. Environment and Behavior, 26 (2):195-222. https://doi.org/10.1177/001391659402600204

(5) Robertson, I.V.; Cooper, C.L. (2010). Full engagement: the integration of employee engagement and psychological well-being. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31(4): 324.336.

(6) Rosch, P.J. (2001). The quandary of job stress compensation. Health and Stress, 3: 1-4.

(7) Oldham, G. R.; Cummings, A. (1996). Employee Creativity: Personal and Contextual Factors at Work. Academy of Management, 39(3): 607-634.

(8) Taris, T. W.; Schreurs, P. J. G.; Eikmans, K. J. L.; van Riet, P. (2008). Work characteristics, wellbeing and organizational performance: An organizational-level test of the happy-productive worker hypothesis. Gedrag Organisatie, 21(1): 3-18.

(9) Al horr, Y., Arif, M., Katafygiotou, M., Mazroei, A., Kaushik, A., Elsarrag, E. (2016). Impact of indoor environmental quality on occupant well-being and comfort: A review of the literature. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, 5(1): 1-11.

(10) Frontczak, M., Wargocki, P. (2011). Literature survey on how different factors influence human comfort in indoor environments. Building and Environment, 46(4): 922-937. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2010.10.021

(11) Huang, L., Zhu, Y., Ouang Q., Cao, B. (2012). A study on the effects of thermal, luminous, and acoustic environments on indoor environmental comfort in offices. Building and Environment, 49: 304-309. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2011.07.022

(12) Newsham, G., Brand, J., Donnelly, C., Veitch, J., Aries, M., & Charles, K. (2009). Linking indoor environment conditions to job satisfaction: a field study. Building Research & Information, 37(2), 129-147. https://doi.org/10.1080/09613210802710298

(13) Vischer, J. C. (2007). The effects of the physical environment on job performance: towards a theoretical model of workspace stress. Stress and Health, 23(3): 175-184. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.1134

(14) Peiró J. M., Ayala Y., Tordera N., Lorente, L., Rodríguez, I. (2014). Sustainable well-being at work: a review and reformulation. Papeles del Psicólogo, 64: 5-14, http://www.papelesdelpsicologo.es/English/2316.pdf

(15) Al horr, Y., Arif, M., Kaushik, A., Mazroei, A., Katafygiotou, M., Elsarrag, E. (2016). Occupant productivity and office indoor environment quality: A review of the literature. Building and Environment, 105: 369-389.

(16) ASHRAE (2016). ASHRAE Guideline 10-2016. Interactions affecting the achievement of acceptable indoor environments. ASHRAE.

(17) EN 15251: 2007 Indoor environmental input parameters for design and assessment of energy performance of buildings addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics.

(18) Ministerio de Industria, Energía y Turismo (2013). Reglamento de instalaciones térmicas en los edificios (RITE). Versión consolidada. Madrid. Secretaría de Estado de Energía.

(19) ISO (2005). ISO 7730 Ergonomics of the thermal environment - Analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the PMV and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria. International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

(20) World Health Organization (2010). WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: selected pollutants. WHO Regional Office for Europe. http://www.higieneambiental.com/sites/default/files/images/pdf/who-indoor-air-quality.pdf

(21) European Environment Agency, European Union (2013). Environment and human health. Joint EEA-JRC report. Nº 5/2013. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications environment-and-human-health

(22) Brager, G. S., de Dear R. (2001). Climate, Comfort, & Natural Ventilation: A new adaptive comfort standard for ASHRAE Standard 55. Paper Brager- Windsor Adaptive Comfort. Berkeley: Center for Environmental Design Research, University of California, https://escholarship.org/uc/item/2048t8nn PMid:11513046

(23) Morgeson, F. P., Humphrey, S. E. (2006). The Work Design Questionnaire (WDQ): developing and validating a comprehensive measure for assessing job design and the nature of work. Journal of applied psychology, 91(6): 1321-1339. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.6.1321 PMid:17100487

(24) Wegge J., Roth C., Neubach B., Schmidt K.H., Kanfer R. (2008). Age and gender diversity as determinants of performance and health in a public organisation: the role of task complexity and group size. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(6):1301-1313. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012680 PMid:19025249

(25) Soriano, A., Kozusznik, M. W., Peiró, J. M. (2015). Bienestar y rendimiento en trabajadores de oficinas. El rol de los patrones de trabajo. Anuari de Psicología, 16(2): 195-202.

(26) De Dear R., Foldvary, V., Zhang, H., Arens, E., Luo, M., Parkinson, T., Du, X., Zhang, W., Chun, C., Liu, S. (2016, 29 October-2 November) Comfort is in the mind of the beholder: a review of progress in adaptive thermal comfort research over the past two decades. In The Fifth International Conference on Human-Environment System. Nagoya: ICHES.

(27) Lamberts, R., Candido, C., de Dear, R., de Vecchi, R. (2013). Thermal Comfort. Towards a Brazilian Standard on Thermal Comfort. Florianópolis: Federal University of Santa Catarina (LabEEE), University of Sydney (IEQ Lab).

(28) Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales (1998). NTP 503: Confort acústico: el ruido en oficinas. Espa-a: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo.

(29) Hay, B., Kemp, M. F. (1972) Measurements of noise in air conditioned, landscaped offices. Journal of Sound and Vibration 23(3): 363-373. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-460X(72)90631-1

(30) Knez, I., Hygge S. (2002). Irrelevant speech and indoor lighting: Effects on cognitive performance and self-reported affect. Applied Cognitive Psychology 16(6): 709-718. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.829

(31) Balazova, I., Clausen, G., Wyon, D.P. (2007, 10 June-14 June). The influence of exposure to multiple indoor environmental parameters on human perception, performance and motivation. In Proceedings of Clima 2007 WellBeing Indoors. Helsinki: FINVAC, http://www.irbnet.de/daten/iconda/CIB6916.pdf

(32) De Kort, Y., Smolders K. C. H. J. (2010). Effects of dynamic lighting on office workers: First results of a field study with monthly alternating settings. Lighting Research &Technology, 42(3): 345-360. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477153510378150

(33) Veitch, J. A., Newsham, G.R., Boyceb, P. R., Jones, C. C. (2008) Lighting appraisal, well being and performance in openplan offices: A linked mechanisms approach. Lighting Research & Technology, 40: 133-151. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477153507086279

(34) Boyce P. R., Veitch J. A., Newsham, G. R., Jones C. C., Heerwagen, J., Myer, M., Hunter, C. M. (2006) Lighting quality and office work: two field simulation experiments. Lighting Research &Technology, 38(3): 191-223. https://doi.org/10.1191/1365782806lrt161oa

(35) Juslén, H., Woutersb, M., Tennerb, A. (2007). The influence of controllable task-lighting on productivity: a field study in a factory. Applied Ergonomics, 38: 39-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2006.01.005 PMid:16527244

(36) Antón, P. Evaluación de la complejidad del desempe-o de la tarea. Función Pública del Gobierno Vasco. https://www. vitoria-gasteiz.org/wb021/http/contenidosEstaticos/adjuntos/es/22/43/2243.pdf

(37) La Caixa (2013). Anuario económico de Espa-a 2013. Selección de indicadores. Barcelona: La Caixa.

(38) Rodríguez, R. (2012). Rental dynamics in Madrid office market: an approach from the cointegration and long-term equilibrium. ERES European Real Estate Society Conference 2012. Edinburg: ERES European Real Estate Society, http://eres.scix.net/data/works/att/eres2012_234.content.pdf

(39) BNP Paribas Real Estate (2013). Investing in Spain 2013. Madrid: BNP Paribas Real Estate.

(40) EN ISO 7726:2001 Ergonomics of the termal environment – Instruments for measuring physical quantities.

(41) Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L. (2001). On Happiness and Human Potentials: A Review of Research on Hedonic and Eudaimonic Well-Being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52: 141-166. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.141 PMid:11148302

(42) White, M. P., Dolan, P. (2009). Accounting for the richness of daily activities. Psychological Science, 20(8): 1000-1008. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02392.x PMid:19549079

(43) Kahneman, D., Krueger, A.B., Schkade, D.A., Schwarz, N., Stone, A.A. (2004). A survey method for characterizing daily life experience: the day reconstruction method. Science, 306(5702): 1776-1780. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1103572 PMid:15576620

(44) Andersson, K. (1998). Epidemiological approach to indoor air problems. Indoor Air, 4: 32-39. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0668.1998.tb00005.x

(45) Katz, D. (1964). The motivational basis of organizational behavior. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 9(2):131-146. https://doi.org/10.1002/bs.3830090206

(46) Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E. and Schaufeli, W. B. (2009). Work engagement and financial returns: A diary study on the role of job and personal resources. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82: 183–200. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317908X285633

(47) Williams, R. D. (1991). Performance of dynamic load balancing algorithms for unstructured mesh calculations. Concurrency: Practice and Experience, 3(5): 457–481. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpe.4330030502




Copyright (c) 2018 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Licencia de Creative Commons
Esta obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.


Contacte con la revista informes@ietcc.csic.es

Soporte técnico soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es